Questions 1-3 are based on the following text.
Parents send their children to school with the best of intentions, believing that format education is what kids need to become productive happy adult. Many parents do have qualms about how well schools are performing, but the conventional wisdom is that these issues can be resolved with more money, better, 5 more chalenging curricula, or more rigorous test. But what if the real problem is school itself? The unfortunate fact is that one of our most cherished instruction is by its very nature, failing our children and our Society.
Children are required to be in school, where their freedom is greatly restricted far more than most adult would tolerate in their workspaces. In recent decades, we 10 have been compelling them to spend ever more time in this kind of setting and there is strong evidence that this is causing psychological damage to many of them. And as scientists have investigated now children naturally learn, they have realized that kids do so most deeply and fully, and with greatest in conditions that are almost opposite to those of school.
Compulsory education has been a fixture of our culture now for several generations. President Obama and Secretary of Education Arne Duncan are so ; enamored of it that they want even longer school days and years. Most people assume that the basic design of today’s school emerged from scientic evidence about how children learn. But nothing could be further from the truth.
Schools as we know them today are product of history, not of research. The blueprint for them was developed during the Protestant Reformation, when schools were created to teach children to read the Bible, to believe Scripture without questioning it and to obey authority figures without questioning them. When schools were taken over by the state, made compulsory and directed forward 25 secular ends, the basic structure and method of teaching remanied unchanged. Subsequent attempts at reform have failed because they have not altered bask blueprint. The top down, teach and test method in which learning is motivated by a system of rewards and punishments rather than by curiosity of by any real desire to know, is well designed for indotrination and obidience training but not much else. If is no wonder that many of the world’s, greatest entrepreneurs and inovators either left School early (like Thomas Edison) or said they hated school and learned despite it, not because of it (like albert Einstein).1. What is the topic of the text above?
a. Restrictions on children’s fredoom at the US schools
b. Parents expectation on reformation in American school system
c. Restrictions on children’s freedom at the US schools
d. Doubts on the effectiveness of American schools systems
a. To discuss if the American school system is truly effective to educate children.
b. To remind American parents that the formal school is basically a product of culture.
c. To tell the readers that formal schools in the USA have been constantly developed for a long time.
d. To review how compulsoryeducation in the USA has met parents expectation.
Questions 4 — 9 are based on the following text.
The benefits of tasting must be preceded by a look at the body’s progression when deprived of food. Due to the lack of incoming energy, the body must turn to its own resources a function called autolysis. Autolysis is the breaking down of fat stores in the body in order to procedure energy. The liver is in charge of 5 converting the fats into a chemical called a ketone body, and then distributing these bodies throughout the body via the blood stream. The less one eats, the more the body turns to these stored fats and creates these ketone bodies, the accumulation of which is referred to as ketosis.
Detoxification is the foremost argument presented by advocates of fasting. “Detoxification is a normal body process of eliminating or neutralizing toxins through the color, liver, kidneys, lungs, lymph glands, and skin.” This process is precipitated by fasting because when food is no longer entering the body, the body turns to fat reserves for energy.
A second prescribed benefit of fasting is the healing process that begins in the body during a fast During a fast energy is diverted away from the digestive system due to its lack of use and towards the metabolism and immune system. Thehealing process is precipitated by the body’s search for energy sources. Abnormal growths within the body, tumors and the like, do not have the full support of the body’s supplies and therefore are more susceptible to autolysis. Finally the most scientifically proven advantage to fasting is the feeling of rejuvenation and extended life expectancy. Part of this phenomenon is caused by a number of the benefits mentioned above. A slower metabolicrate, more effieent protein production system, and the increased production of hormones contributes to this long-term benefit of fasting. In addition to the human growth hormone that is released more frequently during a fast, an antiaging hormone is also produced more efficiently.
a. The body’s progression
b. The function of autolysis
c. A ketone body
d. The health benefits of fasting
a. the more hungry you feel
b. the longer you will live
c. the less production of hormones occurs
d. the less immune system your body produces
a. detoxification is the primary advantage of fasting
b. the less one eats, the more ketone bodies are Seated
c. one benefit of tasting is a curative process
d. the most scientifically proven benefit of fasting is the feeling ofrejuvenation
a. discuss the effect of fasting
b. present suggestions for lasting
c. describe the benefits of fasting
d. suggest methods of fasting
a. stored fats
b. the blood stream
c. the body
d. ketone bodies
a. Left without
b. Provided with
c. Presented with
Questions 10-15 are based on the following text.
What is happening in Egypt is the latest example of the interplay between democracy, protest and goverment efficacy. Democracy is a way of deciding the decision-makers, but it is not a substitute for making the decision. I remember an early conversation with some young Egyptians shortly after President Mubarak’s 5 downfall. They believe that, with democracy, problems would be solved. When I probed on the right economic policy for Egypt, they simply said that it would all be fine because now they had democracy : chance of working.
1 am a strong supporter of democracy. But democratic goverment does not on its own mean effective government. Today, efficacy is the challenge. When 10 governments do not deliver, people protest. In fact as Turkey and Brazil show, they can protest even when, on any objective basis, countries have made huge progress. But as countries move from low to middle income status, the people’s expectations rise. They want quality services, better housing, good infrastructure, especially transport.
This is a sort of free democratic spirit that operates outside the convention of democracy that elections decide the government. It is enormously fuelled by social media, itself a revolutionary phenomenon. It moves very fast in preciptating crisis. It is not always consistent or rational. A protest is not a policy, or a placard a programme for government. But if governments do not have a clear argument with which to rebut the protest, they are in trouble.
In Egypt, the government’s problems were compounded by resentment at the ideology and intolerence of the Muslim Brotherhood. Across the Middle East, for the first time, and this is a positive development, there is open debate about the role of religion in politics. Despite the Muslim Brotherhood’s superior organization, there is probably a majority for an intrinsically secular approach to government in the region.
Society can be deeply imbued with religious observance, but people are starting to realise that democracy only works as a pluralistic concept where faiths are respected and where religion has a voice, not a veto. For Egypt, a nation with an immense and varied civilisation, around 8 million Christians and young population who need to be connected to the world, there is not really a future as an Islamic state that aspires to be part of a regional caliphate.
a. Government efficacy is in ore important than democracy.
b. Democracy does not guarantee for wealth to occur.
c. There is no peoples’ protest in poor countries.
d. There is no democracy when there is no protest.
a. A criticsm of the effect of democracy in Egypt
b. An explaination of problems Of democracy in Egypt
c. An example of the interplay between democracy, protest, and government efficacy
d. A comparison between democracy in Egypt and in other countries
a. Muslim Brotherhood insists to replace secular government into islamic one
b. The author perceives negatively the current political trend in Egypt
c. Egypt is the largest country in the Middle and politics
d. Egyptian society do not like mixing religion and politics
a. inform readers about democracy in Egypt
b. describe the system of democracy in Egypt
c. tell readers about the government problems
d. publicize conditions of Egypt after Mubarak’s downfall